Kam Wah Chung: A Step Back in Time

The store inside Kam Wah Chung, John Day, OR 26October2018
The store inside Kam Wah Chung

Have you ever stepped inside a time capsule and discovered a place frozen in time? You have the opportunity to visit such a place if you stop at the Kam Wah Chung State Heritage Site in John Day, Oregon. The small building, located two blocks north of Highway 26, was, at one time, bustling with activity. Kam Wah Chung, which translates to the “Golden Flower of Prosperity,” served as a dry goods store, herbalist shop, import business, house of worship, and boarding house. It also housed an informal library and post office.

Exterior of the building, John Day, OR 26October2018
Exterior of the building

A Tour Inside

     As you step into the dimly lit interior of the building, you get a feel for what life was like decades ago.

Products in the store John Day, OR 26October2018
Products in the store

Boxes and tins of everyday products line the shelves. Merchandise stocked at Kam Wah Chung appealed to both Chinese and American customers.

More products in the store John Day, OR 26October2018
More in the store

In the backroom, larger boxes of supplies fill the room.

The storage room and a small altar John Day, OR 26October2018
The storage room and a small altar

The apothecary is amazing!  Stacks of small neatly labeled boxes reach to the ceiling.

The apothecary at Kam Wah Chung John Day, OR 26October2018
The apothecary at Kam Wah Chung

They used many herbs in the practice of Chinese medicine, but also more exotic things like lizard feet, bat wings, and bear parts.  A small room across from the apothecary served as a place to treat patients.

Close up of the apothecary at Kam Wah Chung John Day, OR 26October2018
Close up of the apothecary at Kam Wah Chung

You step through a low doorway to get into the kitchen. The table and wood stove look ready to serve a hot meal.

The kitchen at Kam Wah Chung John Day, OR 26October2018
The kitchen
Close up of the kitchen at Kam Wah Chung John Day, OR 26October2018
Close up of the kitchen at Kam Wah Chung

An early version of a refrigerator cabinet sits in a corner.

Refrigerator cabinet John Day, Oregon 26October2018
Refrigerator cabinet

Religion was an important part of everyday life and small altars, with dried oranges and incense stick offerings, are tucked into various nooks.

Altar in the kitchen John Day, OR 26October2018
Altar in the kitchen
Visitor center display about importance of religion John Day, OR 26October2018
Visitor center display about importance of religion

Two sets of bunk beds are in the same room as the kitchen. Advertisements line the walls and undersides of the bunks, in case you might need to purchase a suit while staying there.

Advertisements lining the bunk beds John Day, OR 26October2018
Advertisements lining the bunk beds

As you pass through another door, you’ll enter a private bedroom. You can’t go upstairs, but additional boarding and living quarters are located there.

History of Kam Wah Chung

     The building was constructed in the 1860s as a trading post, and it was put under lease to the Kam Wah Chung Company in 1878. Ing Hay and Lung On, both originally from the Guangdong Province of China, formed a partnership and purchased the business in 1887. It served as a gathering place for Chinese immigrants who traveled to Oregon to work on railroad lines and in gold mines. In 1862, prospectors discovered gold in Canyon City, two miles south of John Day. In 1880, John Day was home to over 2,000 Chinese, the second largest Chinese community in Oregon and one of the largest in the U.S.

Front of the building John Day, OR 26October2018
Front of the building

Partners in business – Ing Hay and Lung On

Ing Hay, also known as “Doc Hay,” practiced herbal medicine and pulsology. Doc Hay lost his sight, but he claimed he could use his sensitive hands to identify ailments based on a patient’s pulse. Western medicine was in its infancy at that time and anyone could claim to be a doctor. Nearly half of patients treated by “quack” doctors died from infection. Ing Hay served both Chinese and non-Chinese patients and was a well-respected healer throughout the region. He was considered a “municipal treasure” after he used his herbal remedies to prevent the spread of illness during the Influenza Epidemic of 1918.

Ing Hay AKA 'Doc Hay' John Day, OR 26October2018
Ing Hay AKA ‘Doc Hay’

Lung On, also known as “Leon,” was a well-educated man fluent in both English and Chinese. He used his charisma and many skills in his work as a merchant, labor contractor, mediator, and translator. After the gold rush, he turned to other endeavors. Lung On started a mail-order clothing company and also had one of the first car dealerships and service stations east of the Cascades. He also dabbled in real estate and horse racing. Lung On was a successful businessman and he willed his $90,000 estate to Ing Hay. Both men continued living in the Kam Wah Chung building for nearly 60 years and were considered valued members of the community.

Lung On AKA 'Leon' John Day, OR 26October2018
Lung On AKA ‘Leon’
Visitor center display about how important Ing Hay and Lung On were to the community, John Day, OR 26October2018
Visitor center display about how important Ing Hay and Lung On were to the community

The Chinese Exclusion Act

     Though both had family in China, they never returned to their native country. One reason for this was the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. Increasing tensions between Chinese and resident laborers in a struggling economy led to a series of laws. The Act stated that Chinese could not become U.S. citizens or own land. Teachers, students, diplomats, and merchants were given limited rights, but weren’t always allowed back into the U.S. if they left the country. In John Day, Chinese could only live in a small neighborhood near Kam Wah Chung and it served as a refuge for them. More moved to John Day in 1885 when the Chinese neighborhood in Canyon City burned to the ground and they were not allowed to rebuild. It was a challenging environment for people of Chinese heritage and they felt safer living near each other.

Note the meat cleavers. Visitor center display about the isolation of Chinese in John Day, OR 26October2018
Note the meat cleavers – Visitor center display about the isolation of Chinese in Oregon

     Chinese could not own guns in Grant County so Ing Hay and Lung Ho kept meat cleavers at the ready to defend themselves. You can see evidence of how they were harassed by observing bullet holes in their metal-clad front door. The thin layer of metal didn’t stop any bullets, but it prevented fire from destroying the building.

Opening the Time Capsule

     Lung On passed away in 1940 and Ing Hay moved to a Portland nursing home in 1948. He passed away in 1952 and his nephew sold the building to the city of John Day. Ing Hay wanted the building to serve as a Chinese history museum, but that request was forgotten. The Kam Wah Chung building remained locked until 1967. When the doors were opened, everything inside was largely intact. Over 30,000 artifacts have been cataloged. The apothecary contained hundreds of herbs, some of which no longer exist in the wild. One of Doc Hay’s medical books may have been compiled 300-500 years ago by one of the founders of Chinese medicine. If the book is an original, it would be one of the few copies known to still exist.

The storage room at Kam Wah Chung, John Day, OR 26October2018
The storage room at Kam Wah Chung

Visiting Kam Wah Chung

       Kam Wah Chung was deeded to Oregon State Parks and Recreation in 1975 and leased to the city of John Day. It opened to the public in 1977. The state took over management of the site in 2004. The Friends of Kam Wah Chung help manage a small visitor center and store housed in a separate building.

Gift shop in the visitor center John Day, OR 26October2018
Gift shop in the visitor center

     Oregon State Parks and Recreation offers free 45-minute tours of the Kam Wah Chung site from May 1 to October 31. A guide must accompany visitors. The guides offer visitors a wealth of information and they obviously enjoy sharing their knowledge. Their talks are enhanced by informative recordings. The tours fill up fast so this year they are experimenting with making reservations in advance.

There are several exciting updates related to Kam Wah Chung. Plans are in the works for a larger visitor center that may include a “virtual reality” room that would simulate the interior of the building. Recent archaeological research at the site has revealed where the temple and other buildings may have once stood. In July, students can participate in an archaeology field school on the site as part of the Oregon Chinese Diaspora Project. Malheur National Forest, Southern Oregon Laboratory of Anthropology, and Kam Wah Chung are among those working on this project. The Discovery Channel is working on a documentary about Chinese traditional medicine and they have shot footage at Kam Wah Chung and several other locations. The program is expected to air in North America in the fall of 2019.

Visitors from around the world

    This site is an important destination for those interested in history. It is the best known example of an historical Chinese mercantile and herb store in the United States. Chinese scholars have expressed great interest in Kam Wah Chung and they visit the site regularly. As news stories related to discoveries at the site have spread throughout China, it has become a destination for Chinese tourists. People from all over the world visit Kam Wah Chung.

There has been a significant increase in the number of visitors from the Netherlands. Locations near Kam Wah Chung were featured in the highly popular Dutch reality program “Wie is de Mol?” which translates as “Who is the Mole?”

The dining table John Day, OR 26October2018
The dining table

  I am fortunate that this site is only about two hours away from Bend, Oregon, where I live. It’s a trip well worth taking.

Interesting facts…

Here are a few interesting facts about Kam Wah Chung:

  • More than 90 unopened bottles of bourbon whiskey were found under the floorboards and in the walls, stashed there during the Prohibition. Today they are valued at around $10,000 each. Several bottles mysteriously disappeared during various renovations.
  • Ing Hay’s great-grandnephew, Robert M. Wah, MD, served as president of the American Medical Association in 2015.  The call to work as a healer continues in this family.
  • $23,000 worth of uncashed checks were found under Ing Hay’s bed. They would be worth about $250,000 in today’s dollars. Some think he never cashed them because he knew his patients couldn’t afford to pay the bills.

To view a 2015 Emmy nominated documentary about Kam Wah Chung produced by Oregon Public Broadcasting, see Oregon Experience – Kam Wah Chung. The personal stories recounted by people who knew Ing Hay and Lung On helps to bring the history of this remarkable place to life.

This is a reprint of a June 2019 article in High Desert Voices, a newsletter by and for volunteers and staff at the High Desert Museum in Bend, Oregon. To see more issues of the newsletter, go here.

The Daily Spur – Tour

8 thoughts on “Kam Wah Chung: A Step Back in Time

  1. Thank you so much for the tour of the Kam Wah Chung State Heritage Site. I didn’t know about this part of the history. It’s fascinating. Hope to visit this state Heritage site in the near future.

  2. The site has been always been closed the times I’ve been through John Day. Looks like a new destination to me! A shame the way the Chinese and Japanese were treated in this country.

    • Yeah, it has a short season. We went in October. I agree, some were treated horribly. At least a bit of their treasured history is preserved there.

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